Tareekh-e-Islam 05 - Nabuwat aur Tableegh-e-Islam, Habsha ki Hijrath, Kuffar-e-Makkah ki Gustakhiyan

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Author : Akbar Shah Najeebabadi

Description : Islam is the second largest religion in the world after Christianity, with about billion Muslims worldwide. Although its roots go back further, scholars typically date the creation of Islam to the 7th century, making it the youngest of the major world religions. Islam started in Mecca, in modern-day Saudi Arabia, during the time of the prophet Muhammad’s life. Today, the faith is spreading rapidly throughout the world.

The prophet Muhammad(PBUH), was born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, in 570 Muslims believe he was the final prophet sent by God to reveal their faith to mankind, An angel named Jibrael visited Muhammad in 610 while he was meditating in a cave. The angel ordered Muhammad to recite the words of Allah Muhammad(PBUH) continued to receive revelations from Allah throughout the rest of his life. Starting in about 613, Muhammad began preaching throughout Mecca the messages he received. He taught that there was no other God but Allah and that Muslims should devote their lives to this God.

By the 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate extended from Iberia and Southern Italy in the west to the Indus River in the east. Polities such as those ruled by the Umayyads (in the Middle East and later in Iberia), Abbasids, Fatimids, and Mamluks were among the most influential powers in the world. The Islamic Golden Age gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable astronomers, mathematicians, physicians and philosophers during the Middle Ages.

By the early 13th century, the Delhi Sultanate conquered much of the northern Indian subcontinent, while Turkic dynasties like the Sultanate of Rum and Artuqids conquered much of Anatolia from the Byzantine Empire throughout the 11th and 12th centuries. In the 13th and 14th centuries, destructive Mongol invasions and those of Tamerlane (Timur) from the East, along with the loss of population in the Black Death, greatly weakened the traditional centers of the Islamic world, stretching from Persia to Egypt, but saw the emergence of major global economic powers such as West Africa's Mali Empire and South Asia's Bengal Sultanate. Following the deportation and enslavement of the Muslim Moors from the Emirate of Sicily and other Italian territories, the Islamic Spain was gradually conquered by Christian forces during the Reconquista. Nonetheless, in the Early Modern period, the Islamic gunpowder empires—the Ottoman Empire, Safavid Iran and Mughal India—emerged as great world powers. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, most of the Islamic world fell under the influence or direct control of European "Great Powers." Their efforts to win independence and build modern nation-states over the course of the last two centuries continue to reverberate to the present day, as well as fuel conflict-zones in regions such as Palestine, Kashmir, Xinjiang, Chechnya, Central Africa, Bosnia and Myanmar. The History Continues.

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